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May 18, 2012

昨天在微博上面看到吵A8和A9性能比较,架构中年宅心中又燃起了激情,这里稍微比较一下,数据都是来自ARM官网,在下凭着多年的知识稍微吐槽一二。

官网数据链接:

http://www.arm.com/products/processors/cortex-a/cortex-a8.php

http://www.arm.com/products/processors/cortex-a/cortex-a9.php

比性能,基本上就是比处理速度和能耗。如果把CPU比作麦当劳,里面有几万民工翻汉堡,那么谁翻的快,翻的省电,谁就赢了。当然这里有个架构问题,如果把麦当劳跟牛肉面比,麦当劳肯定完败。好在A8和A9的架构没有显著差别,都是v-7 A,还是麦当劳比麦当劳。

主频:A8 600M到1G,A9 800M到2G 主频高性能一般高,但是能耗也上去了。能耗函数的电容模型是W=fV^2C,和主频成正比。

电压和能耗,两个页面给出的标准不同,A8是0.9V到1.08V,A9给出的是能耗。能耗公式里面的那个C是跟芯片工艺有关的芯片电容常数,不知道台积电的参数,不好说。

工艺:A8没有给出工艺,估计是代工工厂比较多。A9页面显示是台积电代工,65纳米和40纳米两种工艺。

性能测试参数:A8单核开满1G推算值是两千DMIPS,A9单核1G推算是两千五百DMIPS,25%左右的性能提升,A9完胜。

那么为神马A9这么快?因为A9开了俩外挂:多核,乱序执行。A9可以有单核或者4核心,另外首次引入了乱序执行。当然开外挂是要付出代价的,A9的4核心能耗就比单核高很多,虽然没有高到4倍,这个跟多核之间的片内连接省电有关。

乱序执行也是一个大家伙,ARM架构以前一直不用乱序,因为乱序耗电,对性能提升有限。我以前读书时候做的研究表明,不用乱序,10%的性能损失可以换取30%的能耗节约,后来intel的ATOM架构用了类似的思想来省电。这次A9引入乱序,居然还能这么省电,台积电的工艺的确不错。

基本上就是这些了,新一代的CPU比前一代好是正常的,A9的性能提升,主要是多核+乱序,然后新工艺来保证能耗下降。