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December 31, 2010

嗯,马上要新年了,顺着解剖 Facebook 【6】云计算云存储的那些事儿 写点关于amazon dynamo的段子。

《最近比較煩》是周華健、品冠、李宗盛这三个在人生不同阶段的男人对男人辛苦的调侃,那么如果映射到云存储提供公司里面的不同职位的人,是否对云存储也有不同的感触呢?

硬件工程师:最近比较烦比较烦比较烦,amazon的机器已经有几十万,平时沉稳淡定的硬盘,每天趴窝也成了家常便饭。

软件架构师:最近比较烦比较烦比较烦,他们硬件麻烦要我们软件来管,机器趴窝还不算完,一个破路由器把网络分两半。

CTO:我比你烦也比你烦也比你烦,贝索斯说了技术细节他不管,用户选了东西你就给我存好,将来读不出来小心你的饭碗!

合唱:每天总有远的近的麻烦,现成的软件都有点脚软。文件系统搞得东西太乱,数据库总是弄得太慢。干脆,咱们卷起袖子自己干!

硬件工程师:机器趴窝不是那么普遍,每天也就几十个节点

软件架构师:数据丢了可是不能算完,我写它一万遍啊一万遍

硬件工程师:路由器的事情老板不肯出钱,买的都是自家网站卖的低端

软件架构师:低端的路由,把网断开,把数据版本分两段…

硬件工程师:你跑调了,那个是《城里的月光》

软件架构师和硬件工程师望着CTO:老板,怎么办?

嗯,歌唱好了,说说唱的都是是啥吧。其实都是云存储里面的常见问题。首先是硬件稳定性,因为云的计算和存储都是海量的PC机完成的,如果一台机器每天可能失效的几率是万分之一,那么基本上每天都有机器失效,特别是数据中心这种地方,一不小心就过热。对付硬件失效的方法就是复制数据和计算,带来的副作用就是有多个copy需要更新。

其次是网络稳定性,这个和硬件稳定性是相关的,通常是因为路由器的关系,让网络分割(partition)为不连通的两个或者多个部分,导致数据不能流通。网络一旦分割,更新copy的事情就会出问题,在一个网络分割的copy被更新了,另外一些在其他网络分割的就不能被更新。将来网络恢复了,就会发现有多个版本。

如何解决这些问题呢?不同的应用有不同的要求。在amazon的这个应用里面,CEO有两个需求:

  1. 用户存的东西(主要是购物车的内容)要立刻能存,不能丢
  2. 用户取数据的时候要给一个完整的购物车

另外,amazon需要的不是普通的文件系统,也不是关系型数据库,他们需要的是一个能快速存取的key / value store,就是用一个key能够快速的取得相应的数据对象,这决定了他们:

  1. 不需要多层的文件系统,因为这个是给程序用的
  2. 不需要关系型数据库,他们主要是拿了key就能立刻取得value,关系型数据库带来很多冗余和不必要的限制
  3. 需要在各种困难情况下迅速的取得数据

具体的实现细节,在这里:

http://s3.amazonaws.com/AllThingsDistributed/sosp/amazon-dynamo-sosp2007.pdf

更多的段子,请关注ifanr的sunny_kan

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