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July 27, 2009

这几天忽然去下载了一堆毛选来看,原因很简单,小时候讨厌政治课,是因为枯燥和教条;后来不看毛选,是因为觉得没用。

不看不知道,主席的东西还是很有道理的,比如为人民服务,和矛盾论

操作系统和浏览器,都是软件。软件,就是为人民服务的,从操作硬盘,到播放毛片,人民需要什么,软件就去干什么。F

软件是人写的,很复杂,做的事情越多,复杂程度就越高。所以软件不是胡椒面,到处都能撒。怎么办?要抓住主要矛盾,用软件解决最主要的问题。

在计算机刚出现的时候,什么是主要矛盾?是人民群众日益增长的,要使用计算机的需求,和数十万个继电器,电子管和晶体管之间的矛盾。所以那个时候,出现的是对硬件的抽象化:把电路的通断,抽象为0和1,转化为纸片/纸带上的孔,把01组织成byte,word,把操作符和操作数组织成汇编语言。

UNIX和C语言的出现,标志着小型机的标准化:人们可以用一种标准的抽象模型,来描述“计算机”。这是2的N次方的计算单元抽象化的终结,也是新的矛盾的开始:这个时候的矛盾,是人民群众要使用计算机的需求,和众多硬件的可操作性的矛盾。硬件已经被UNIX抽象为:

1.CPU,一个可以被分时使用的资源
2.虚拟内存,一个有限的线性存储空间
3.文件,一个有使用代号(handle)的I/O数据流,它可以是CPU和内存以外的任何东西:硬盘,磁带,网卡,等等等等。

PC继承了小型机的衣钵,在这个抽象模型下面走的更远。摩尔定律推动无数的晶体管在硅片上面扎根,这些晶体管的计算能力需要有地方宣泄,于是无数的PC外设在这个开放平台上面被开发出来:更好的显卡,更好的声卡,更好的硬盘控制器,更多的外部接口,都被OS控制着,被人们使用;在wintel的统治下,无数的钱流向了硅谷和西雅图。

这个美好的场景一直持续到了90年代中期,直到有一天,一个叫Marc Andreessen的小子说:操作系统?那不就是一口袋驱动程序么?

(An operating system) is just a bag of drivers.

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