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December 15, 2009

昨天写了电波和列车,引来Song的专业评论。看来我这里虽然偏僻,但是还是有不少专业人士在看,这样好,我也不靠口水和美女去争取流量,有高质量的读者才重要。

那我今天再写一个物理量让人迷惑的事情:芯片的速度。

通常在通俗读物里面,芯片之所以快,都是因为它们是用电信号来计算的,这个电信号其实不准确:到底这个信号是不是电磁波的速度呢?比如:一个计算的结果,从芯片的一级流水线传递到下一级,是不是用光速传播的呢?

当然你可以说,这个速度不是每秒30万公里,因为芯片的导线是铝或者铜,不是真空,所以没有那么快。事实上,信号在芯片里面传播的速度,比电磁波的速度要小很多很多,否则intel的那群芯片设计师们,也不要努力缩小线宽了,把线路弄短是正经。

说到这里,再提一个问题:为什么线宽越小,芯片的速度越快呢?

答案是:在芯片里面,信号的传递速度,是受限于导线的充电速度的。当电流从一根导线的一段传递到另外一段的时候,这根导线实际上相当于一个电容,而高电平则是对电容充电,低电平则是放电,当充电/放电的过程结束的时候,导线两端的电压一致,信号就传递过去了。电容越大,充电和放电的时间越长,信号就传递的越慢。

导线的电容,正比于导线的面积,所以导线越短,线宽越窄,电容就越小,信号速度就越快。

2 Comments »

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