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February 27, 2010

Robert写了《思考:未来的web服务是否还需要用户注册的部分?》,提出中小型web服务可以不单独建立注册模块,一个可能的方法,是使用google或者facebook的账户服务。真的是有趣的问题大家都会考虑,我当年也写过《接着说facebook:facebook能成为网络身份证吗?》,当时马上要去深圳出差,没有继续写下去。文章的最后两段,其实说明了我对这种类似Microsoft Passport的第三方认证的考虑。

先说一下我对问题的理解吧:基本上,网络服务和用户之间,还是在沿用当年UNIX终端验证用户的方法:用户名+密码。非常简洁有效的方法,明码的用户名解决了名字空间里面冲突的问题,密码用来验证用户的身份。这是一个双向的契约模型:用户名用来唯一确定用户,密码作为主机和人之间的身份契约。

随着网络服务的增加,用户需要维护的契约越来越多,不仅在用户名的名字空间冲突逐渐增加,用户不得不选取各种用户名来代表自己,密码也成为更大的负担。为了减轻用户负担,微软提出了第三方认证的passport方法。基本上就是把各种锁的各个钥匙,变成微软一家的万能钥匙,只要开了微软这把锁,后面的锁都开了。

我在《接着说facebook:facebook能成为网络身份证吗?》一文的最后,给出了攻击这种万能钥匙的方法。就是假扮成passport的合作伙伴,在自家门面上,挂上和其他真正合作伙伴一样的锁,盗取用户的万能钥匙。这个办法不是我发明的,很早就有人用这个办法,骗取人们去看谁在MSN上面block了他们,然后盗取MSN密码。类似的,meebo这种让人们输入各种聊天工具密码的网站,也很容易被人伪造而盗取密码。

总结下来,这种万能钥匙失效的原因,是把原来的双方(主机和用户)契约,变为了三方(主机,用户,万能钥匙提供商)契约。三方契约本身并没有错,错在契约失效的时候,如何控制损失。在双方契约(用户名+密码)模型里面,用户和某个网站之间如果契约失效(如密码被盗),用户的损失局限于所有和这个网站相关的资料;而在万能钥匙的三方契约里面,一旦密码被盗,损失的是用户的万能钥匙,后面所有依赖这把钥匙的锁,全都可以被攻破。

尽管万能钥匙的方法不可靠,但是还是会有提供商去推广,因为掌握了用户的行为,就意味着商业机会。不过这种和用户利益背道而驰的方法,我不看好。契约过多的问题还是存在的,也会有新的方法最终解决这个问题。

7 Comments »

  1. 我总觉得以后的authentication肯定在浏览器端做

    Comment by forresty — February 27, 2010 @ 10:09 pm

  2. @forresty,
    浏览器容易被本地攻击,或者被假冒。服务器端验证是不可少的,而且浏览器和服务器经常属于不同的利益组织,信任也是一个问题。

    Comment by 美人她爹 — February 27, 2010 @ 10:19 pm

  3. 是个问题。不过我觉得加强浏览器或搜索引擎对钓鱼网站的检测是个好办法。

    Comment by linuxcity — March 2, 2010 @ 5:43 am

  4. I agree with you !

    Comment by christian louboutin — December 3, 2012 @ 6:43 pm

  5. 好文章

    Comment by christian louboutin — December 3, 2012 @ 6:43 pm


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    Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/samsongli/meirendaddy.com/blog/wp-includes/kses.php on line 948

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